Ekthuwapranee K, Sotthibundhu A, Tocharus C, Govitrapong P . Melatonin ameliorates dexamethasone-induced inhibitory effects on the proliferation of cultured progenitor cells obtained from adult rat hippocampus. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 2015;145:38-48.


Posiri P, Kondo H, Hirono I, Panyim S , Ongvarrasopone C. Successful yellow head virus infection of Penaeus monodon requires clathrin heavy chain. Aquaculture. 2015;435:480-7.


Leebonoi W, Sukthaworn S, Panyim S , Udomkit A. A novel gonad-specific Argonaute 4 serves as a defense against transposons in the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. Fish and Shellfish Immunoloogy. 2015;42(2):280-8.


Choengchan N, Mantim T, Inpota R, Nacapricha D, Wilairat P, Jittangprasert P, Waiyawa W, Fucharoen S , Sirankpracha P, Morales N. Tandem measurements of iron and creatinine by cross injection analysis with application to urine from thalassemic patients. Talanta. 2015;133:52-8.


Sakdapipanich J, Kalah R, Nimpaiboon A, Ho CC. Influence of mixed layer of proteins and phospholipids on the unique film formation behavior of Hevea natural rubber latex. Colloids and Surfaces a-Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects. 2015;466:100-6.


Smith DR. Global protein profiling studies of chikungunya virus infection identify different proteins but common biological processes. Reviews in Medical Virology. 2015;25(1):3-18.


Butthep P, Wisedpanichkij R, Jindadamrongwech S, Fucharoen S . Elevated erythropoietin and cytokines levels are related to impaired reticulocyte maturation in thalassemic patients. Blood Cells Molecules and Diseases. 2015;54(2):170-6.


Urtgam S, Treerattrakool S, Roytrakul S, Wongtripop S, Prommoon J, Panyim S, Udomkit A. Correlation between gonad-inhibiting hormone and vitellogenin during ovarian maturation in the domesticated Penaeus monodon. Aquaculture. 2015;437:1-9.


Shukla M, Htoo HH, Wintachai P, Hernandez JF, Dubois C, Postina R, Xu H, Checle F, Smith DR, Govitrapong P, Vincent B. Melatonin stimulates the nonamyloidogenic processing of βAPP through the positive transcriptional regulation of ADAM10 and ADAM17. Journal of Pineal Research. 2015.


Nestor MW, Jacob S, Sun B, Prè D, Sproul AA, Hong SI, Woodard C, Zimmer M, Chinchalongporn V, Aracio O, Noggle S.A. Characterization of a subpopulation of developing cortical interneurons from human iPSCs within serum-free embryoid bodies. American Journal of Physiology (Cell Physiology). 2015;308(3):C209-C19.


Lohachanakul J, Phuklia W, Thannagith M, Thongsakulprasert T, Smith DR, Ubol S. Differences in response of primary human myoblasts to infection with recent epidemic strains of Chikungunya virus isolated from patients with and without myalgia. Journal of Medical Virology. 2015;87(5):733-9.


Srihirun S, Tahjararak N, Chuncharunee S, Sritara P, Kaewvichit R, Fucharoen S, Pattanapanyasat K, Sibmooh N. Platelet hyperactivity in thalassemia patients with elevated tricuspid regurgitant velocity and the association with hemolysis. Thrombosis Research. 2015;135(1):121-6.


Phetrungnapha A, Kondo H, Hirono I, Panyim S, Ongvarrasopone C. Molecular cloning and characterization of Mj-mov-10, a putative RNA helicase involved in RNAi of kuruma shrimp. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2015;44(1):241-7.


Namvongsakool P, Asuvapongpatana S, Senapin S, Weerachatyanukul W, Treerattrakool S, Withyachumnarnkul B. A novel localization of molt-inhibiting hormone in the tegumental glands of shrimp Penaeus monodon and its possible role in shrimp molting. Aquaculture. 2015;438:129-37.


Phithakrotchanakoon C, Champreda V, Aiba SI, Pootanakit K, Tanapongpipat S. Production of Polyhydroxyalkanoates from Crude Glycerol Using Recombinant Escherichia coli. Journal of Polymers and the Environment. 2015;23(1):38-44.


Kanokratana P, Eurwilaichitr L, Pootanakit K, Champreda V. Identification of glycosyl hydrolases from a metagenomic library of microflora in sugarcane bagasse collection site and their cooperative action on cellulose degradation. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering. 2015;119(4):384-91.


Tuampoemsab S, Nimpaiboon A, Sakdapipanich JT. Quantitative analysis of isoprene units in natural rubber and synthetic polyisoprene using 1H-NMR spectroscopy with an internal standard. Polymer Testing. 2015;43:21-6.


Whankaew S, Sraphet S, Thaikert R, Boonseng O, Smith DR, Triwitayakorn K. Validation of a reference gene for transcript analysis in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and its application in analysis of linamarase and a-hydroxynitrile lyase expression at different growth stages. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2015;14(9):745-51.


Wichaiyo S, Yatmark P, Morales Vargas RE, Sanvarinda P, Svasti S, Fucharoen S, Morales N.P. Effect of iron overload on furin expression in wild-type and β-thalassemic mice. Toxicology Reports. 2015;2:415-22.


Ekthuwapranee K, Sotthibundhu A, Govitrapong P. Melatonin attenuates methamphetamine-induced inhibition of proliferation of adult rat hippocampal progenitor cells in vitro. Journal of Pineal Research. 2015;58(4):418-28.


Simon-Loriere E, Lin RJ, Kalayanarooj SM, Chuansumrit A, Casademont I, Lin SY, Yu HP, Lert-Itthiporn W, Chaiyaratana W, Tangthawornchaikul N, Tangnararatchakit K, Vasanawathana S, Chang BL, Suriyaphol P, Yoksan S, Malasit P, Despres P, Paul R, Lin YL, Sakuntabhai A. High Anti-Dengue Virus Activity of the OAS Gene Family Is Associated With Increased Severity of Dengue. The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2015;212(12):2011-2020.


Wintachai P, Thuaud F, Basmadjian C, Roytrakul S, Ubol S, Désaubry L, Smith DR. Assessment of flavaglines as potential chikungunya virus entry inhibitors. Microbiology and Immunology. 2015;59(3):129-41.


Osterberg P, Samphanthamit P, Maprang O, Punnadee S, Brockelman WY. Gibbon (Hylobates lar) reintroduction success in Phuket, Thailand, and its conservation benefits. American Journal of Primatology. 2015;77(5):492-501.


Winichagoon P, Kumbunlue R, Sirankapracha P, Boonmongkol P, Fucharoen S. Discrimination of various thalassemia syndromes and iron deficiency and utilization of reticulocyte measurements in monitoring response to iron therapy. Blood Cells, Molecules and Diseases. 2015;54(4):336-41.


Pangjit K, Banjerdpongchai R, Phisalaphong C, Fucharoen S, Xie YY, Lu ZD, Hider RC, Srichairatanakool S. Characterisation of a novel oral iron chelator: 1-(N-Acetyl-6-Aminohexyl)-3-Hydroxy-2-Methylpyridin-4-one. The Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 2015;67(5):703-13.


Buranaamnuay K. Determination of appropriate cryopreservation protocols for epididymal cat spermatozoa. Reproduction in Domestic Animals. 2015;50(3):378-85.


Pang T, Thiam DGY, Tantawichien T, Ismail Z, Yoksan S. Dengue vaccine-time to act now. The Lancet. 2015;385(9979):1725-6.


Sathapondecha P, Panyim S, Udomkit A. A novel function of bursicon in stimulation of vitellogenin expression in black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon. Aquaculture. 2015;446:80-7.


Kamkaew M, Chimnaronk S. Characterization of soluble RNA-dependent RNA polymerase from dengue virus serotype 2: The polyhistidine tag compromises the polymerase activity. Protein Expression and Purification. 2015;112:43-9.


Aroonkesorn A, Pootanakit K, Katzenmeier G, Angsuthanasombat C. Two specific membrane-bound aminopeptidase N isoforms from Aedes aegypti larvae serve as functional receptors for the Bacillus thuringiensis Cry4Ba toxin implicating counterpart specificity. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 2015;461(2):300-306.


Tong-ngam P, Roytrakul S, Sritanaudomchai H. BmKn-2 scorpion venom peptide for killing oral cancer cells by apoptosis. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2015;16(7):2807-11.


Winichagoon P, Kumpan P, Holmes P, Finlayson J, Newbound C, Kabral A, Li B, Nuinoon M, Fawcett T, Tayapiwatana C, Kasinrerk W, Fucharoen S. Validation of the immunochromatographic strip for α-thalassemia screening: A multicenter study. Translational Research. 2015;165(6):689-95


Tangsongcharoen C, Chomanee N, Promdonkoy B, Boonserm P. Lysinibacillus sphaericus binary toxin induces apoptosis in susceptible Culex quinquefasciatus larvae. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology. 2015;128:57-63.


Ricchi P, Filosa A, Maggio A, Fucharoen S. Non-transfusion-dependent thalassemia: A complex mix of genetic entities yet to be fully discovered. BioMed Research International. 2015;ID161434.


Kurehong C, Kanchanawarin C, Powthongchin B, Katzenmeier G, Angsuthanasombat C. Membrane-Pore Forming Characteristics of the Bordetella pertussis CyaA-Hemolysin Domain. Toxins. 2015;7(5):1486-96.


Chamnanchanunt S, Kuroki C, Desakorn V, Enomoto M, Thanachartwet V, Sahassananda D, Sattabongkot J, Jenwithisuk R, Fucharoen S, Svasti S, Umemura T. Downregulation of plasma miR-451 and miR-16 in Plasmodium vivax infection. Experimental Parasitology. 2015;155:19-25.


Khomkhum N, Leetachewa S, Angsuthanasombat C, Moonsom S. Functional assembly of 260-kDa oligomers required for mosquito-larvicidal activity of the Bacillus thuringiensis Cry4Ba toxin. Peptides. 2015;68:183-9.


Ananchaipatana-Auitragoon P, Ananchaipatana-Auitragoon Y, Siripornpanich V, Kotchabhakdi N. Protective role of taurine in developing offspring affected by maternal alcohol consumption. EXCLI Journal. 2015;14:660-71.


Saisawang C, Sillapee P, Sinsirimongkol K, Ubol S, Smith DR, Ketterman AJ. Full length and protease domain activity of chikungunya virus nsP2 differ from other alphavirus nsP2 proteases in recognition of small peptide substrates. Bioscience Reports. 2015;35(3):e00196.


Yanpanitch OU, Hatairaktham S, Charoensakdi R, Panichkul N, Fucharoen S, Srichairatanakool S, Siritanaratkul N, Kalpravidh RW. Treatment of β -thalassemia/hemoglobin e with antioxidant cocktails results in decreased oxidative stress, increased hemoglobin concentration, and improvement of the hypercoagulable state. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity. 2015;2015:ID537954.


Libsittikul S, Khongwich1it S, Smith DR, Yap YK. Evaluation of papaya ringspot virus as a vector for expression of dengue e protein domain III in Cucurbita pepo (Zucchini) plants. The Journal of Animal & Plant Sciences. 2015;25(3):809-815.


Rungruengphol C, Jaresitthikunchai J, Wikan N, Phaonakrop N, Keadsanti S, Yoksan S, Roytrakul S, Smith DR. Evidence of plasticity in the dengue virus: Host cell interaction. Microbial Pathogenesis. 2015;86:18-25.


Buranaamnuay K, Sangsuwan P, Changsangfa C, Faisaikarm T, Kaeoket K. Influence of discontinuous PuresPerm® and OptiPrep™ gradient centrifugations on bovine sperm quality and the sex ratio of in vitro produced embryos. Chiang Mai Journal of Science. 2015;42(3):637-49.


Thangnipon W, Suwanna N, Jantrachotechatchawan C, Ngampramuan S, Tuchinda P, Nobsathian S. Protective roles of N-benzylcinnamide on cortex and hippocampus of aged rat brains. Archives of Pharmacal Research. 2015;38(7):1380-1388.


Chinchalongporn V, Koppensteiner P, Prè D, Thangnipon W, Bilo L, Arancio O. Connectivity and circuitry in a dish versus in a brain. Alzheimer’s Research and Therapy. 2015;7(1). Article number 44.


Jumnongprakhon P, Govitrapong P, Tocharus C, Pinkaew D, Tocharus J. Melatonin Protects Methamphetamine-Induced Neuroinflammation Through NF-κB and Nrf2 Pathways in Glioma Cell Line. Neurochemical Research. 2015;40(7):1448-1456.


Nuiplot NO, Junking M, Duangtum N, Khunchai S, Sawasdee N, Yenchitsomanus PT, Akkarapatumwong V. Transmembrane protein 139 (TMEM139) interacts with human kidney isoform of anion exchanger 1 (kAE1). Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 2015;463(4):706-711.


Chaichompoo P, Pattanapanyasat K, Winichagoon P, Fucharoen S, Svasti S. Accelerated telomere shortening in β-thalassemia/HbE patients. Blood Cells, Molecules and Diseases. 2015;55(2):173-179.

Chungjatupornchai W, Watcharawipas A. Diacylglycerol acyltransferase type 2 cDNA from the oleaginous microalga Neochloris oleoabundans: Cloning and functional characterization. Journal of Applied Phycology. 2015;27(4):1499-1507.

Pariyaprasert W, Piboonpocanun S, Jirapongsananuruk O, Visitsunthorn N. Stability and potency of raw and boiled shrimp extracts for skin prick test. Asian Pacific journal of allergy and immunology / launched by the Allergy and Immunology Society of Thailand. 2015;33(2):136-42.


Roberts TR, Minicry of a bean seed by the amazonian aspredinid catfish Amaralia hypsiura (Kner 1855), with notes on vegetative camouflage by fishes. Aqua, International Journal of Ichthyology. 2015;21(3):120-126.


Sraphet S, Smith DR, Triwitayakorn K. Isolation and Characterization of Microsatellite Loci and Genetic Diversity in Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Journal of Crop Improvement. 2015;29(4):447-54.


Breton CA, Wikan N, Abbuhl A, Smith DR, Russell SJ, Peng K-W. Oncolytic potency of HER-2 retargeted VSV-FH hybrid viruses: the role of receptor ligand affinity. Citation:Molecular Therapy-Oncolytics.2015;2:15012.


Manonai J, Kamthaworn S, Petsarb K, Wattanayingcharoenchai R. Development of a pelvic floor evaluation device. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand. 2015;98(3):219-25.


Parameyong A, Govitrapong P, Chetsawang B. Melatonin attenuates the mitochondrial translocation of mitochondrial fission proteins and Bax, cytosolic calcium overload and cell death in methamphetamine-induced toxicity in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Mitochondrion. 2015;24:1-8.


Khongwichit S, Libsittikul S, Yoksan S, Auewarakul P, Suputtamongkol Y, Smith DR. Retrospective screening of acute undifferentiated fever serum samples with universal flavivirus primers. Journal of Infection in Developing Countries. 2015;9(7):760-4.


Sriwimol W, Aroonkesorn A, Sakdee S, Kanchanawarin C, Uchihashi T, Ando T,Angsuthanasombat C. Potential prepore trimer formation by the Bacillus thuringiensis mosquito-specific toxin: Molecular insights into a critical prerequisite of membrane-bound monomers. The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2015;290(34):20793-803.


Phanaksri T, Luxananil P, Panyim S, Tirasophon W. Synergism of regulatory elements in σB- and σA-dependent promoters enhances recombinant protein expression in Bacillus subtilis. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering. 2015;120(4):470-5.


Wongprayoon P, Govitrapong P. Melatonin attenuates methamphetamine-induced neuroinflammation through the melatonin receptor in the SH-SY5Y cell line. NeuroToxicology. 2015;50:122-30.


Yatmark P, Morales NP, Chaisri U, Wichaiyo S, Hemstapat W, Srichairatanakool S, Svasti S, Fucharoen S. Effects of iron chelators on pulmonary iron overload and oxidative stress in β-thalassemic mice. Pharmacology. 2015;96(3-4):192-9.


Wintachai P, Kaur P, Lee RC, Ramphan S, Kuadkitkan A, Wikan N, Ubol S, Roytrakul S, Chu JJ, Smith DR. Activity of andrographolide against chikungunya virus infection. Scientific Reports. 2015;5:14179.


Juntapremjit S, Thamwiriyasati N, Kurehong C, Prangkio P, Shank L, Powthongchin B, Angsuthanasombat C. Functional importance of the Gly cluster in transmembrane helix 2 of the Bordetella pertussis CyaA-hemolysin: implications for toxin oligomerization and pore formation. Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology. 2015;106:14-19.


Singhakumar R, Boontem P, Ekthuwapranee K, Sotthibundhu A, Mukda S, Chetsawang B, Govitrapong P. Melatonin attenuates methamphetamine-induced inhibition of neurogenesis in the adult mouse hippocampus: An in vivo study. Neuroscience Letters. 2015;606:209-214.


Siriwattanakul U, Piboonpocanun S, Traiperm P, Pichakam A, Songnuan W. Amaranthus species around Bangkok, Thailand and the release of allergenic proteins from their pollens. Asian Pacific Journal of Allergy and Immunology. 2015;33(3):203-10.


Panmanee J, Nopparat C, Chavanich N, Shukla M, Mukda S, Song W, Vincent B, Govitrapong P. Melatonin regulates the transcription of βAPP-cleaving secretases mediated through melatonin receptors in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Journal of Pineal Research. 2015;59(3):308-20.


Tharad S, Iturri J, Moreno-Cencerrado A, Mittendorfer M, Promdonkoy B, Krittanai C, Toca-Herrera JL. Effect of the Concentration of Cytolytic Protein Cyt2Aa2 on the Binding Mechanism on Lipid Bilayers Studied by QCM-D and AFM. Langmuir. 2015;31(38):10477-83.


Tangprasittipap A, Satirapod C, Jittorntrum B, Lertritanan S, Anurathaphan U, Phanthong P, Borwornpinyo S, Kitiyanant N, Hongeng S. Generation of iPSC line MU011.A-hiPS from homozygous α-thalassemia fetal skin fibroblasts. Stem Cell Research. 2015;15(3):506-9.


Lekakarn H, Promdonkoy B, Boonserm P. Interaction of Lysinibacillus sphaericus binary toxin with mosquito larval gut cells: Binding and internalization. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology. 2015;132:125-31.


Abed S, Tubsuwan A, Chaichompoo P, Park IH, Pailleret A, Benyoucef A, Tosca L, De Dreuzy E, Paulard A, Granger-Locatelli M, Relouzat F, Prost S, Tachdjian G, Fucharoen S, Daley G.Q, Payen E, Chrétien S, Leboulch P, Maouche-Chrétien L. Transplantation of Macaca cynomolgus iPS-derived hematopoietic cells in NSG immunodeficient mice. Haematologica. 2015;100(10):e428-e31.


McConkey KR, Brockelman WY, Saralamba C, Nathalang A. Effectiveness of primate seed dispersers for an oversized fruit, Garcinia benthamii. Ecology. 2015;96(10):2737-47.


Puangmalai N, Somani A, Thangnipon W, Ballard C, Broadstock M. Puangmalai N, Somani A, Thangnipon W, Ballard C, Broadstock M. A genetically immortalized human stem cell line a promising new tool for alzheimer's disease therapy. EXCLI Journal. 2015;14:1135-1144.


Thaikert R, Sraphet S, Boonchanawiwat A, Boonseng O, Smith DR, Roytrakul S, Triwitayakorn K. Identification of differentially expressed proteins in cassava infected with Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. manihotis. Journal of Crop Improvement. 2015;29(6):728-46.


Jirakanwisal K, Srisutthisamphan K, Thepparit C, Suptawiwat O, Auewarakul P, Paemanee A, Roytrakul S, Smith DR. Identification of Hsp90 as a species independent H5N1 avian influenza A virus PB2 interacting protein. Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. 2015;43:28-38.


Pandit RA, Meetum K, Suvarnapunya K, Katzenmeier G, Chaicumpa W, Angsuthanasombat C. Isolated CyaA-RTX subdomain from Bordetella pertussis: Structural and functional implications for its interaction with target erythrocyte membranes. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 2015;466(1):76-81.


Rabablert J, Tiewcharoen S, Auewarakul P, Atithep T, Lumlerdkij N, Vejaratpimol R, Junnu V. Anti-amebic activity of diosgenin on Naegleria fowleri trophozoites. Southeast Asian Journal Of Tropical Medicine And Public Health. 2015;46(5):827-34.


Suphatrakul A, Yasanga T, Keelapang P, Sriburi R, Roytrakul T, Pulmanausahakul R, Utaipat U, Kawilapan Y, Puttikhunt C, Kasinrerk W, Yoksan S, Auewarakul P, Malasit P, Charoensri N, Sittisombut N. Generation and preclinical immunogenicity study of dengue type 2 virus-like particles derived from stably transfected mosquito cells. Vaccine. 2015;33(42):5613-22.


Sraphet S, Saengsri A, Smith DR, Triwitayakorn K. Genetic analysis of Cheirostylis species based on microsatellite markers. Plant Genetic Resources : Characterization and Utilization. 2015;13(3):286-289.


Saisawang C, Saitornuang S, Sillapee P, Ubol S, Smith DR, Ketterman AJ. Chikungunya nsP2 protease is not a papain-like cysteine protease and the catalytic dyad cysteine is interchangeable with a proximal serine. Scientific Reports. 2015 Nov 24;5:17125.


Wikan N, Libsittikul S, Yoksan S, Auewarakul P, Smith DR. Delayed antibody dependent enhancement of low passage dengue virus 4 isolates. BMC Research Notes. 2015;8:399.


Chimnaronk S, Sitthiroongruang J, Srisucharitpanit K, Srisaisup M, Ketterman AJ, Boonserm P. The crystal structure of JNK from Drosophila melanogaster reveals an evolutionarily conserved topology with that of mammalian JNK proteins. BMC Structural Biology. 2015;15:17.


Thongchote K, Svasti S, Teerapornpuntakit J, Suntornsaratoon P, Krishnamra N, Charoenphandhu N. Bone microstructural defects and osteopenia in hemizygous βIVSII-654 knockin thalassemic mice: Sex-dependent changes in bone density and osteoclast function. American Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2015;309(11):E936-E48.


Tanyong DI, Panichob P, Kheansaard W, Fucharoen S. Effect of tumor necrosis factor-alpha on erythropoietinand erythropoietin receptor-induced erythroid progenitor cell proliferation in β-Thalassemia/Hemoglobin e patients. Turkish Journal of Hematology. 2015;32(4):304-10.


Wongtrakoongate P, Riddick G, Fucharoen S, Felsenfeld G. Association of the Long Non-coding RNA Steroid Receptor RNA Activator (SRA) with TrxG and PRC2 Complexes. PLoS Genetics. 2015;11(10): e1005615.


Wongjaikam S, Kumfu S, Chattipakorn SC, Fucharoen S, Chattipakorn N. Current and future treatment strategies for iron overload cardiomyopathy. European Journal of Pharmacology. 2015;765:86-93.


Kadri Z, Lefevre C, Goupille O, Penglong T, Granger-Locatelli M, Fucharoen S, Maouche-Chretien L, Leboulch P, Chretien S. Erythropoietin and IGF-1 signaling synchronize cell proliferation and maturation during erythropoiesis. Genes and Development. 2015;29(24):2603-16.


Upanan S, Pangjit K, Uthaipibull C, Fucharoen S, McKie AT, Srichairatanakool S. Combined treatment of 3-hydroxypyridine-4-one derivatives and green tea extract to induce hepcidin expression in iron-overloaded β-thalassemic mice. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine. 2015;5(12):1010-1017.


Wongsantichon J, Robinson RC, Ketterman AJ. Epsilon glutathione transferases possess a unique class-conserved subunit interface motif that directly interacts with glutathione in the active site. Bioscience Reports. 2015;35.(6):E00272.